# Eloquent polymorphic relationships explained (with examples)

April 5, 2021
English

In my opinion, Eloquent is one of the most powerful features of Laravel. It is an API for interacting with your database, and it has a very nice and easy-to-remember syntax. For example:

$post->author->name;  Will give you the name of the post's author. This is an example of an Eloquent relationship. Relationships define how your models (tables) are connected. Although most are easy to understand, there are a few more complicated ones. In this post, I'm going to show how every polymorphic relationship works. You can read more about "default" relationships here, and click here if you want to learn how to unit test your relationships. ## One to one In this example, we have three models: a Post, a Video, and an Image. • A Post has one Image • A Video has one Image • An Image belongs to a Post or Video And we have this table structure: posts id - integer title - string videos id - integer name - string images id - integer path - string imageable_id - integer imageable_type - string  We can define these relationships like this: // app/Models/Post.php public function image() { return$this->morphOne(Image::class, 'imageable');
}

// app/Models/Video.php

public function image()
{
return $this->morphOne(Image::class, 'imageable'); }  // app/Models/Image.php public function imageable() { return$this->morphTo();
}


Now we can access the image like this:

$post->image->path;$video->image->path;


And if we have the $image, we can get the object where it belongs to (a Post or a Video) like this: $image->imageable;


## One to many

In this example, we have three models: a Post, a Video, and a Comment.

• A Post has many Comments
• A Video has many Comments
• A Comment belongs to a Post or a Video

And we have this table structure:

posts
id - integer
title - string

videos
id - integer
name - string

id - integer
body - string
commentable_id - integer
commentable_type - string


We can define the relationships like this:

// app/Models/Post.php

{
return $this->morphMany(Comment::class, 'commentable'); }  // app/Models/Video.php public function comments() { return$this->morphMany(Comment::class, 'commentable');
}

// app/Models/Comment.php

public function commentable()
{
return $this->morphTo(); }  Now we can access the comments like this: foreach($post->comments as $comment) { // } foreach($video->comments as $comment) { // }  And if we have a $comment, we can get the corresponding model (a Post or a Video) like this:

$comment->commentable;  ## Many to many In this example, we have three models: a Post, a Video, and a Tag. • A Post has many Tags • A Video has many Tags • A Tag belongs to many Posts or Videos For example, a Tag called "personal" can belong to a Post and a Video. We may have this table structure: posts id - integer title - string videos id - integer name - string tags id - integer name - string taggables tag_id - integer taggable_id - integer taggable_type - string  We can define the relationships like this: // app/Models/Post.php public function tags() { return$this->morphToMany(Tag::class, 'taggable');
}

// app/Models/Video.php

public function tags()
{
return $this->morphToMany(Tag::class, 'taggable'); }  // app/Models/Tag.php public function posts() { return$this->morphedByMany(Post::class, 'taggable');
}

public function videos()
{
return $this->morphedByMany(Video::class, 'taggable'); }  Now we can access the tags like this: foreach($post->tags as $tag) { // } foreach($video->tags as $tag) { // }  And if we have a $tag, we can access the posts and videos like this:

foreach($tag->posts as$post) {
//
}

foreach($tag->videos as$video) {
//
}